Direct coupling of aryl halides and alkyllithium compounds by palladium catalysis — ScienceDaily

Palladium catalysts help synthesize key chemicals for many industries. However, direct reaction of two basic reagents, aryl halides and alkyllithium compounds, remains a challenge. Now, a team of scientists have found that a catalyst containing YPhos-type ligands can mediate this reaction even at room temperature. This discovery may contribute to the development of more sustainable processes in the chemical industry, the authors write in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

Palladium-catalyzed chemical processes are very useful. Palladium catalysts help to couple simple carbon-containing compounds to form more complicated chemical structures. However, they have yet failed to couple two common reagents in chemical synthesis, aryl halides and alkyllithium compounds. Among the aryl halides, aryl chlorides are common synthesis reagents that react variably during palladium-catalyzed reactions to produce side products.

For coupling reactions with aryl halides and alkyllithium compounds, chemists usually take “detours” by adding intermediate synthesis steps. Unfortunately, every extra synthesis step

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Coupling deep transcriptome and metabolome analysis unveils thermotolerance in cool-season turfgrass

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant forage and cool-season perennial species in the U.S., China and several European countries, which grows at optimum temperature ranging from 18 to 25 oC.

High temperature damage impairs the growth of tall fescue by inhibiting secondary metabolites. Little is known about the regulation pattern of the fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism at the whole-transcriptome level in tall fescue under high temperature stress.

In a study published in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, the researchers form Molecular Breeding of Turfgrass and Forage Grass Group, Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, first analyzed the high temperature damage to fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism in two tall fescue accessions, PI 234881 and PI 578718, by using coupling deep transcriptome and metabolome analysis.

Using RNA-Seq, 121 genes were induced during the second energy production phase in tall fescue exposed

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