A method for genome editing — ScienceDaily

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 to Emmanuelle Charpentier, Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany, and Jennifer A. Doudna, University of California, Berkeley, USA “for the development of a method for genome editing.”

Genetic scissors: a tool for rewriting the code of life

Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna have discovered one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors. Using these, researchers can change the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with extremely high precision. This technology has had a revolutionary impact on the life sciences, is contributing to new cancer therapies and may make the dream of curing inherited diseases come true.

Researchers need to modify genes in cells if they are to find out about life’s inner workings. This used to be time-consuming, difficult and sometimes impossible work. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic

Read More
Read More

Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded for CRISPR genome editing to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna for the development of a method for genome editing.



Jennifer Doudna, Emmanuelle Charpentier posing for the camera: The American biochemist Jennifer A. Doudna (left) and French microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier, pictured together in 2016.


© Alexander Heinl/picture alliance/Getty Images
The American biochemist Jennifer A. Doudna (left) and French microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier, pictured together in 2016.

They discovered one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors. Using these, researchers can change the DNA of animals, plants and micro-organisms with extremely high precision.

Before announcing the winners on Wednesday, Göran K. Hansson, secretary-general for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said that this year’s prize was about “rewriting the code of life.”

The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools have revolutionized the molecular life sciences, brought new opportunities for plant breeding, are contributing to innovative cancer therapies and may make the dream of curing inherited diseases come true, according to a press release from the Nobel committee.



a close up of a book: Doudna and Charpentier are the first two women to jointly win the chemistry prize.


© Niklaus Elmehed/Nobel Prize
Doudna

Read More
Read More

Understanding the effect of aging on the genome — ScienceDaily

Time may be our worst enemy, and aging its most powerful weapon. Our hair turns grey, our strength wanes, and a slew of age-related diseases represent what is happening at the cellular and molecular levels. Aging affects all the cells in our body’s different tissues, and understanding its impact would be of great value in fighting this eternal enemy of all ephemeral life forms.

The key is to first observe and measure. In a paper published in Cell Reports, scientists led by Johan Auwerx at EPFL started by asking a simple question: how do the tissues of aging mice differ from those of mice that are mere adults?

To answer the question, the researchers used the multiple techniques to measure the expression of everyone one of the thousands of mouse’s genes, and to identify any underlying epigenetic differences. The researchers not only measured different layers of information, but they

Read More
Read More

New smartphone app analyses coronavirus genome in minutes

Melbourne, Sep 29 (PTI) Scientists have developed a new smartphone app that can analyse the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that causes COVID-19, within minutes.

Described in the journal Communications Biology, the ‘Genopo’ app makes genetic material more accessible to remote or under-resourced regions, as well as the hospital bedside.

‘Not everyone has access to the high-power computing resources that are required for DNA and RNA analysis, but most people have access to a smartphone,’ said Ira Deveson from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Australia.

‘Fast, real-time genomic analysis is more crucial today than ever, as a central method for tracking the spread of coronavirus. Our app makes genomic analysis more accessible, literally placing the technology into the pockets of scientists around the world,’ Deveson said.

The researchers tested Genopo on the raw sequencing data of virus samples isolated from nine Sydney patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

They extracted

Read More
Read More

App analyzes coronavirus genome on a smartphone

App analyzes coronavirus genome on a smartphone
The app Genopo makes genomics more accessible to remote or under-resourced regions. Credit: Dr Ira Deveson

A new mobile app has made it possible to analyze the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on a smartphone in less than half an hour.


Cutting-edge nanopore devices have enabled scientists to read or ‘sequence’ the genetic material in a biological sample outside a laboratory, however analyzing the raw data has still required access to high-end computing power—until now.

The app Genopo, developed by the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, in collaboration with the University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka, makes genomics more accessible to remote or under-resourced regions, as well as the hospital bedside.

“Not everyone has access to the high-power computing resources that are required for DNA and RNA analysis, but most people have access to a smartphone,” says co-senior author Dr. Ira Deveson, who heads the Genomic Technologies Group at Garvan’s

Read More
Read More

Unraveling the genome in 3D-space — ScienceDaily

The cells that make up our body are tiny, each of them measuring only micrometers in diameter. The ensemble of chromosomal DNA molecules that encode the genome, on the other hand, measures almost 2 meters. In order to fit into cells, chromosomal DNA is folded many times. But the DNA is not merely squeezed into the nucleus in a random manor but folded in a specific and highly regulated structure. The spatial organization of chromosomal DNA enables regulated topological interactions between distant parts, thereby supporting proper expression, maintenance, and transport of the genome across cell generations.

Breaks in our DNA, which can occur spontaneously or result from irradiation or chemical insults, can lead to severe problems since they foster mutations and can ultimately lead to cancer. But not every DNA break has disastrous consequences, since our cells have ingenious ways of repairing the damage. One of the main DNA repair

Read More
Read More