Many vaccines include ingredients called adjuvants that help make them more effective by eliciting a stronger immune response. Identifying potential adjuvants just got easier, thanks to an approach described by scientists at Kyoto University’s Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) and colleagues in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
The team of chemists and biologists in Japan report they found a molecule that, when added to a vaccine, strengthens the immune response just as well as a commonly used adjuvant. Vaccine adjuvants are an essential part of clinically used antigen vaccines, such as influenza, hepatitis and cervical cancer vaccines.
“Adjuvants generate a robust and long-lasting immune response, but the ones currently in use, like aluminium salts and oil-in-water emulsions, were developed in the 1920s and we don’t precisely understand how they work, which is why they are often called ‘immunologists’ dirty little secret,'” says iCeMS chemical biologist Motonari Uesugi, who led
HP has just announced several new laptops, including the Spectre x360 14 convertible, which brings some notable improvements compared to its already-impressive 13-inch predecessor: a 3:2 aspect ratio display, a 16 percent larger touchpad, quad speakers, and a Thunderbolt 4 port located in one of its diamond-shaped corners so you can plug in your all-in-one cable for charging, data, external monitors and peripherals even if the back or sides of the machine are blocked.
The three-pound HP Spectre x360 14 is equipped with Intel’s latest 11th Gen “Tiger Lake” processors, specifically up to a quad-core 28W Intel Core i7-1165G7 with Intel’s Xe integrated graphics onboard; just one step below the chip that impressed us in a recent Tiger Lake test. HP says the new laptop should be up to 34 percent faster than last year’s Spectre x360 13 model.
It’s only when your car breaks down that you realize you’ve been sold a lemon.
That’s a lesson often applied in financial markets. When capital is flowing freely, investors aren’t likely to spend too long kicking the tires before deciding to put money down. When funding becomes more constrained, they’ll want to examine every detail of the log book before driving off.
This phenomenon was seen most dramatically in the period spanning the 1997–98 Asian financial crisis and the 2001 Enron bankruptcy. People who’d piled into investments suddenly discovered that accounting rules were shot through with loopholes and lacunas, allowing businesses with seemingly robust balance sheets to collapse overnight. That shock, and the desire to tempt back capital with the promise of more transparency, is one of the main reasons that international accounting and audit standards have been harmonized so rapidly in the decades since.
Black holes can get big … really big. But just how big? It’s possible they could top out at over a trillion times more massive than the sun. That’s 10 times bigger than the largest known black hole so far.
But could these monsters truly exist in our universe? A team of researchers has come up with a plan to go hunting for them. And if they exist, they could help us solve the mysteries of how the first stars appeared in the cosmos.
Related: The biggest black hole findings
The demographics of the dark
If you want to go shopping for black holes in the universe, unfortunately you only have two basic sizes: kind of small and gigantic. You know that frustrating feeling you get when the online store is out of your size of that amazing