Researchers at Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) have discovered a cost-effective way to tune the spectrum of a laser to the infrared, a band of great interest for many laser applications. They collaborated with Austrian and Russian research teams to develop this innovation, which is now the subject of a patent application. The results of their work were recently published in Optica, the flagship journal of the Optical Society (OSA).
In this field of study, many laser applications have a decisive advantage if the laser wavelength is located and possibly tunable in the infrared region. However, this is still hardly the case with current ultrafast laser technologies, and scientists need to explore various nonlinear processes to shift the emission wavelength. In particular, the Optical Parametric Amplifier (OPA) has so far been the only well-established tool to reach this infrared window. Although OPA systems offer a broad range
In a recently published study, a team of researchers led by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) at Monash university suggests an innovative method to analyse gravitational waves from neutron star mergers, where two stars are distinguished by type (rather than mass), depending on how fast they’re spinning.
Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar objects that form when giant stars explode and die—in the explosion, their cores collapse, and the protons and electrons melt into each other to form a remnant neutron star.
In 2017, the merging of two neutron stars, called GW170817, was first observed by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. This merger is well-known because scientists were also able to see light produced from it: high-energy gamma rays, visible light, and microwaves. Since then, an average of three scientific studies on GW170817 have been published every
The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Mohali, has developed the technology for aquaponic cultivation of plants, which is not only environment-friendly but also has high socio-economic benefits for the farming community.
Aquaponics is an emerging technique in which both fish as well as plants complement each other to sustain and grow. The fish waste provides organic food for plants and the plants naturally filter the water which is used to replenish the fish tank. There is no requirement for the use of soil and fertilisers.
“The process is completely organic, increases the productivity of the given land, saves water and also augments the farmers’ income,” Dr PK Khosla, director C-DAC, said, adding: “The technology has been developed and suitable protocols have been evolved for scientists and farmers,” he added.
A pilot project to develop the technology was awarded to C-DAC
When metallic components in airplanes, bridges and other structures crack, the results are often catastrophic. But Johns Hopkins University researchers have found a way to reliably predict the vulnerabilities earlier than current tests.
In a paper published today in Science, Johns Hopkins University researchers detail a new method for testing metals at a microscopic scale that allows them to rapidly inflict repetitive loads on materials while recording how ensuing damage evolves into cracks.
“We’re able now to have a more fundamental understanding about what leads up to cracks,” El-Awady said. “The practical implication is that it will allow us to understand and predict when or how the material is going to fail.”
Whether it is the pounding of vehicles on bridges or shifts in air pressure on airplanes, such continuous change called “cyclic loading” gradually induces slips in the internal molecular structure of the most durable metals until cracks
Tiny bubbles can solve large problems. Microbubbles — around 1-50 micrometers in diameter — have widespread applications. They’re used for drug delivery, membrane cleaning, biofilm control, and water treatment. They’ve been applied as actuators in lab-on-a-chip devices for microfluidic mixing, ink-jet printing, and logic circuitry, and in photonics lithography and optical resonators. And they’ve contributed remarkably to biomedical imaging and applications like DNA trapping and manipulation.
Given the broad range of applications for microbubbles, many methods for generating them have been developed, including air stream compression to dissolve air into liquid, ultrasound to induce bubbles in water, and laser pulses to expose substrates immersed in liquids. However, these bubbles tend to be randomly dispersed in liquid and rather unstable.
According to Baohua Jia, professor and founding director of the Centre for Translational Atomaterials at Swinburne University of Technology, “For applications requiring precise bubble position and size, as well as high
Expanding routine newborn screening to include a metabolic vulnerability profile could lead to earlier detection of life-threatening complications in babies born preterm, according to a study by UC San Francisco researchers. The new method, which was developed at UCSF, offers valuable and time-sensitive insights into which infants are at greatest risk during their most vulnerable time, immediately after birth.
The study, published in Nature Pediatric Research by scientists at the UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBI-CA), assessed the records of 9,639 preterm infants who experienced mortality or at least one complication or mortality.
Using the results of standard newborn profiles and blood tests, they identified a combination of six newborn characteristics and 19 metabolites that, together, created a vulnerability profile that reliably identified preterm babies at substantially increased risk for death and severe illness.
“Our results point to a number of potential biological pathways that may play a key role
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 to Emmanuelle Charpentier, Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany, and Jennifer A. Doudna, University of California, Berkeley, USA “for the development of a method for genome editing.”
Genetic scissors: a tool for rewriting the code of life
Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna have discovered one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors. Using these, researchers can change the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with extremely high precision. This technology has had a revolutionary impact on the life sciences, is contributing to new cancer therapies and may make the dream of curing inherited diseases come true.
Researchers need to modify genes in cells if they are to find out about life’s inner workings. This used to be time-consuming, difficult and sometimes impossible work. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic
A group of chemists from RUDN University proposed a new safe approach for the synthesis of pyrroles, substances used in the production of biologically active compounds, from simple and affordable raw materials. The new method would reduce the cost of final products (including some medicinal drugs) hundreds of times. The article was published in the European Journal of Organic Chemistry.
Pyrrole and its derivatives play an important role in the synthesis of biologically active substances. Dozens of medications are based on pyrrole, including the antitumor drug Sunitinib; BM212, which suppresses the growth of tubercle bacillus, and Toradol, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent and painkiller. Pyrrole derivatives are also used to produce borondipyrromethenes (BODIPY) that are a part of photodynamic cancer therapy.
Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound,
Through the development of new technology, University of Minnesota researchers have developed a method that allows scientists to understand how a fruit fly’s brain responds to seeing color. Prior to this, being able to determine how a brain responds to color was limited to humans and animals with slower visual systems. A fruit fly, when compared to a human, has a visual system that is five times faster. Some predatory insects see ten times faster than humans.
“If we can understand how seeing color affects the brain, we will be able to better understand how different animals react to certain stimuli,” said Trevor Wardill, the study’s lead author and assistant professor in the College of Biological Sciences. “In doing so, we will know what interests them most, how it impacts their behavior, and what advantages different color sensitivities may give to an individual’s or a species’ survival.”
Quantum computers are the new frontier in advanced research technology, with potential applications such as performing critical calculations, protecting financial assets, or predicting molecular behavior in pharmaceuticals. Researchers from Osaka City University have now solved a major problem hindering large-scale quantum computers from practical use: precise and accurate predictions of atomic and molecular behavior.
They published their method to remove extraneous information from quantum chemical calculations on Sept. 17 as an advanced online article in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
“One of the most anticipated applications of quantum computers is electronic structure simulations of atoms and molecules,” said paper authors Kenji Sugisaki, Lecturer and Takeji Takui, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemistry and Molecular Materials Science in Osaka City University’s Graduate School of Science.
Quantum chemical calculations are ubiquitous across scientific disciplines, including pharmaceutical therapy development and materials research. All of