Old Faithful is a geyser in Yellowstone National Park, named after its regularity in erupting hot water and steam, fed by the geothermal activity of the Yellowstone supervolcano underneath.
In the last several decades, scientists have observed that Old Faithful’s interval between eruptions has changed considerably, stretching from about 60-65 minutes in the 1950s to about 90-94 minutes since 2001.
A geyser’s eruption is feed by a complex, underground vent system filled with water. As the magma in the underground heats up the groundwater, steam pressure will build up until it is sufficient to trigger a steam eruption on the surface. According to the scientists, no major changes have occurred in the thermal state of Yellowstone, excluding this factor as an explanation for the delay in Old Faithful’s eruptions. Another possible factor controlling geyser activity
A 10-year effort by China to improve air quality and reduce pollution-related health risks has caused warming in areas across the northern hemisphere, according to new work published in Environmental Research Letters.
Aerosols are tiny particles that are spewed into the atmosphere by human activities, such as burning coal and wood, or by geological phenomena, like volcanos. Their negative effects on air quality can damage human health and agricultural productivity.
Similar to how the aerosols emitted in a volcanic eruption can cause global temperatures to drop, some aerosols from human activity also have a cooling effect on the climate. Unlike greenhouse gases, which induce global warming by trapping heat in the atmosphere, aerosol particles can cause sunlight to be reflected away from the planet either directly or by interacting with clouds.
“This means that some of the effects of global warming are being masked by aerosol pollution,” explained lead
Climate warming will alter marine community compositions as species are expected to shift poleward, significantly impacting the Arctic marine ecosystem.
The biodiversity of marine communities in the Pacific Arctic under future climate change scenarios highlights profound changes relative to their present patterns. Alterations in marine species distributions in response to warming and sea ice reduction are likely to increase the susceptibility and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. The findings, published by Hokkaido University researchers in the journal Science of the Total Environment, also suggest that there will be potential impacts on the ecosystem function and services.
Fisheries oceanographer Irene Alabia of Hokkaido University’s Arctic Research Center along with colleagues in Japan and the US investigated how future climate changes will impact the marine biodiversity in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. These seas extend from Alaska to Russia in the northern Pacific and southern Arctic oceans.