The cells that make up our body are tiny, each of them measuring only micrometers in diameter. The ensemble of chromosomal DNA molecules that encode the genome, on the other hand, measures almost 2 meters. In order to fit into cells, chromosomal DNA is folded many times. But the DNA is not merely squeezed into the nucleus in a random manor but folded in a specific and highly regulated structure. The spatial organization of chromosomal DNA enables regulated topological interactions between distant parts, thereby supporting proper expression, maintenance, and transport of the genome across cell generations.
Breaks in our DNA, which can occur spontaneously or result from irradiation or chemical insults, can lead to severe problems since they foster mutations and can ultimately lead to cancer. But not every DNA break has disastrous consequences, since our cells have ingenious ways of repairing the damage. One of the main DNA repair