Powerful picosecond generators are in demand in various fields of experimental electrophysics to produce ultrashort electron beams and X-ray pulses in vacuum diodes and to form runaway electron flows in gases.
They also have applications in high-power microwave electronics, but researchers are constantly striving to obtain shorter and more powerful pulses.
In Review of Scientific Instruments, by AIP Publishing, scientists showed compact solid-state pulse generators could generate electrical pulses of less than one-billionth of a second in duration and up to 50 billion watts in power.
“For comparison, the most powerful hydroelectric power plant in China has an output power of 22.5 billion watts,” said Sergei Rukin, one of the authors.
Improving picosecond generators and mastering higher peak power levels in the picosecond range sets the groundwork for new applications in the coming years.
“This also happened with the development of powerful nanoscecond pulsed devices during the last 60 years,”
Most entrepreneurs think in the present. They know they need money now and they go out and raise whatever they can for their current stage of growth. But, it is critical that entrepreneurs are constantly looking far enough into the future, to know what financial targets will be required to successfully raising their next round of capital, and managing the business towards those targets, to ensure the appropriate valuation step-ups are achieved with each subsequent financing. It is typically not good for the entrepreneur or the investor, if valuations are not continuing to move up over time, as detailed herein.
The Normal Startup Funding Cycle
As a representative example, venture-backed tech startups typically raise monies as follows: $250-$500K seed round, followed by $1-$3MM Series A round, followed by $10-$20MM
Through a one-of-a-kind experiment at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, nuclear physicists have precisely measured the weak interaction between protons and neutrons. The result quantifies the weak force theory as predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics.
The team’s weak force observation, detailed in Physical Review Letters, was measured through a precision experiment called n3He, or n-helium-3, that ran at ORNL’s Spallation Neutron Source, or SNS. Their finding yielded the smallest uncertainty of any comparable weak force measurement in the nucleus of an atom to date, which establishes an important benchmark.