Oct. 7 (UPI) — Scientists have gained new insights into crystal growth rates inside pegmatites, veinlike formations that host some of the planet’s biggest crystals, as well as valuable elements such as tantalum, niobium and lithium.
Magma cooling time typically controls the size of crystals — when magma cools quickly, crystals remain microscopic, and when it cools slowly, crystals have time to grow.
But pegmatite crystals appear to upend this logic, researchers said in a study published this week in the journal Nature Communications.
“Pegmatites cool relatively quickly, sometimes in just a few years, and yet they feature some of the largest crystals on Earth,” Cin-Ty Lee, professor of geology at Rice University, said in a news release. “The big question is really, ‘How can that be?'”
To determine the growth rates of pegmatite crystals, scientists turned to the rare elements that are often found inside pegmatites.
As part of an international collaboration, Aalto University researchers have shown that our common understanding of what attracts visual attention to screens, in fact, does not transfer to mobile applications. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones and tablets in our everyday lives, this is the first study to empirically test how users’ eyes follow commonly used mobile app elements.
Previous work on what attracts visual attention, or visual saliency, has centered on desktop and web-interfaces.
‘Apps appear differently on a phone than on a desktop computer or browser: they’re on a smaller screen which simply fits fewer elements and, instead of a horizontal view, mobile devices typically use a vertical layout. Until now it was unclear how these factors would affect how apps actually attract our eyes,’ explains Aalto University Professor Antti Oulasvirta.
In the study, the research team used a large set of representative mobile interfaces and eye
The nuclear accident in Fukushima remains etched into people’s memories. It was a catastrophe that caused huge amounts of radioactively contaminated water to be released, which the operators of the nuclear power plant subsequently had to clean up. One of the methods they used was reverse osmosis but it wasn’t particularly effective. Although it is possible to purify up to 70 percent of the contaminated water this way, radioactive elements accumulate in the remaining 30 percent. Some of these elements are highly radioactive and remain so for thousands of years. As things stand, the Japanese government is planning to dump this water — over one million litres in total — in the Pacific Ocean come 2022.
“If they used our filter, they wouldn’t need to,” says Raffaele Mezzenga, Professor of Food & Soft Materials at ETH Zurich. It was four years ago that he and his Senior Scientist Sreenath Bolisetty
A lot of recent focus on the digital workplace has been on how enterprises are managing the effects of COVID-19.
Many of the technologies introduced into the enterprise over the past six months have responded to immediate and urgent needs – like the introduction of Slack or Teams for communication and collaboration – but these technologies are also precipitating the rise of new, permanent ways of working.
According to analyst firm Gartner’s recently released “HypeCycle for the Digital Workplace” (behind paywall), enterprises have discovered during the crisis that they need to develop digital resiliency across the workforce after COVID-19 as well as during it. In fact, it was this scramble to build up technology stacks during the pandemic that led to the development of what Gartner describes as the “smart workplace.”
Inside the Digital Workplace Hype
Gartner defines a smart workplace as a workspace that uses
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Sep 30, 2020 (WiredRelease via Comtex) — Opportunity Assessment For Complex Oxide Sputtering Target Market Value Statistics and Facts:
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