A common misreading of Darwinism is that only the strongest survive. Not quite. Charles Darwin argued that organisms that mutated to adapt to changing environments would, through a process of natural selection, lead to the evolution of new species. It had nothing to do with strength, but adaptability. And while the oil and gas industry has some of the world’s cleverest engineers and scientists, they don’t call it Big Oil because it’s especially good at change. We all know that if the energy sector’s cost structure does not evolve, the entire industry will end up like the prehistoric giants who provided the raw material for fossil fuels in the first place.
Computer simulations are showing astrophysicists how massive clumps of gas within galaxies scatter some stars from their orbits, eventually creating the smooth, exponential fade in the brightness of many galaxy disks.
Researchers from Iowa State University, the University of Wisconsin-Madison and IBM Research have advanced studies they started nearly 10 years ago. They originally focused on how massive clumps in young galaxies affect star orbits and create galaxy disks featuring bright centers fading to dark edges.
(As Curtis Struck, an Iowa State professor of physics and astronomy, wrote in a 2013 research summary: “In galaxy disks, the scars of a rough childhood, and adolescent blemishes, all smooth away with time.”)
Now, the group has co-authored a new paper that says their ideas about the formation of exponential disks apply to more than young galaxies. It’s also a process that is robust and universal in all kinds of galaxies. The exponential
Definitions of extended reach drilling can vary, but in most cases ERD wells will have a step-out twice the true vertical depth.
(Courtesy Deep Casing Tools)
Extended reach drilling (ERD) has evolved rapidly in recent decades to reach reserves further and faster. Technology such as rotary steerable systems, high-torque drill pipe connections and rotational, friction reduction tools have enabled this but cannot alone ensure success. When it comes to ERD, people can be the limiting factor. Both must work in unison.
Definitions of extended reach drilling vary. Most often it is described in terms of the position of the well, with ERD wells having a horizontal displacement (the step-out) twice the true vertical depth (TVD). No definition is perfect, however.
For a start, the step-out ratio is somewhat arbitrary. There is a spectrum between ERD and vertical drilling. Some directional drilling, which falls short of the former’s definition, poses similar